MarsThe only world humans can reach with atmosphere and water; on it will be determined how humankind will evolve as a multi-planet species.  Three possible ways:

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Or with humans really on Mars , a true multi-planet species

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With our virtual telepresence creating a virtual reality for exploration

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Or with no exploration, humans remaining hidebound on Earth – a single planet species







To Explore New Worlds and Seek Other Life:  This was why Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and I formed The Planetary Society. Image result for dna in the universe

  • What is our place in the Universe?
  • Are we alone — is life in the Universe iniquitous or unique?
  • Will humankind become a multi-planet species or be limited to Earth?
  • How will Earth and Life evolve:  in cooperative symbiosis or with mutually assured destruction?

I am privileged to have a life to seeking answers to these questions and to experience the great adventures and discoveries  of exploring new worlds — traveling metaphorically (with apologies to Isaac Newton)  on the shoulders of giants.

Human Spaceflight: From Mars to the Stars 
 by Louis Friedman;    
Available on Amazon in 2nd Printing by CoverUniversity of Arizona Press

– Humans may make it to Mars, but no further (except virtually)

– There is a new kind of space race:  and humans may be losing.

Another book  is in the works — A history of my Russian adventures pursuing “Together to Mars”  Accompanying map:  Russia Adventures


This book will be dedicated to our very good friend and colleague, Slava Linkin, who passed away Jan. 15, 2019.  I wrote this obituary for The Planetary Society

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New (Jan. 2019) Article in Aerospace America by Slava Turyshev and I about a mission to the Solar Gravity Lens Focus



AN EARTHLY CONCERN:  Of  greatest concern to Connie and me now is what is happening in our country.  Racism, bigotry, meanness and greed characterize the President with his policies against international cooperation, environmental responsibility and refugees.  Every day it reminds me of the awful year of 1968, from which we may never have really recovered.  We give what we can to the most important cause:  changing our government.  





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